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  • The action principle of the plating additive
  • 2021/10/25
  • To improve the quality of the coating, a variety of chemicals are added to the plating solution, collectively known as plating additives.So what is the action principle of electroplating additives?1. The working principle of electroplating additive: metal electrodeposition process is step by step: first, the electroactive material particles migrate to the external Hemholtz layer near the cathode, electrical adsorption, and then, the cathode charge is transferred to the electrode adsorbed part of the desolvation ions or simple ions, form adsorption atoms, finally, adsorption atoms migrate on the electrode surface, until incorporated into the lattice.The first process mentioned above all produces a certain overpotential (migration overpotential, activation overpotential, and electric crystallization overpotential, respectively).Only at a certain overpotential, the electrodeposition process of the metal has a high enough grain nucleation rate, a moderate charge migration rate and a high enough crystal overpotential to ensure the smooth and dense luster and firm binding with the substrate material.The appropriate electroplating additives can improve the overpotential of the metal electric deposition and provide a strong guarantee for the coating quality.2. Diffusion control mechanism: In most cases, the diffusion of additives to the cathode (rather than the diffusion of metal ions) determines the electrodeposition rate of the metal.This is because the concentration of the metal ions is generally 100~105 times that of the additive concentration, and the current density of the electrode reaction is much lower than its limit current density.Under the case of additive diffusion control, most additive particles diffuse and adsorb to the protrusions, active sites and special crystal surfaces with large electrode surface tension, causing the electrode surface adsorption atoms to migrate to the electrode surface depression and enter the lattice, thus playing a leveling and bright effect.3. Non-diffusion control mechanism: According to the dominant non-diffusion factors in electroplating, the non-diffusion control mechanism of additives can be divided into electric adsorption mechanism, complex generation mechanism (including ion bridge mechanism), ion pair mechanism, changing the Hemholtz potential mechanism, changing the electrode surface tension mechanism, etc.

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